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Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

Nusa Medica Clinic 24 Hours Clinic in Nusa Penida
December 14, 2023

What is HFMD?

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease caused by viruses of the Enterovirus genus. The enterovirus species that most commonly cause HFMD are Coxsackievirus and Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV 71). Common in children under 5 years old.

Sign and Symptoms

HFMD is known for its characteristic symptoms, including fever, sore throat, and a rash on the hands, feet, and mouth.

Early symptoms that are often experienced:

  • Fever: HFMD often begins with a high fever, generally between 38.3°C to 40°C (101°F and 104°F).
  • Sore Throat: Children may experience a sore throat, which can make eating and drinking uncomfortable.
  • Rash: A rash typically appears on the hands, feet, and in the mouth. The rash can consist of small, painful sores or blisters. In the mouth, these sores often develop on the tongue, gums, and inside of the cheeks.

Modes of transmission

Patients with HFMD can spread the HFMD virus through:  nasal secretions / fluids, throat (saliva, sputum), broken skin lesions, and from lesions on their faeces. This spread is easy when there is close contact with the patient (talking and hugging), through the air (sneezing, coughing), contact with the patient’s faeces, and contact with objects or surfaces contaminated by the HFMD virus (holding door handles, table surfaces, furniture contaminated with the virus, etc.). Children are most contagious during the first week of having hand-foot-and-mouth disease. But the virus can remain in the body for weeks after the symptoms go away. That means a child can still infect others. Some people, especially adults, can pass the virus without showing any symptoms of the disease

Reducing Infections:

HFMD is highly contagious and spreads through person-to-person contact, as well as through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated surfaces. To reduce infections:

  • Frequent Handwashing: Encourage regular handwashing with soap and water, especially after using the toilet and before eating.
  • Avoid Close Contact: Limit close contact with infected individuals, and avoid sharing utensils, cups, and personal items.
  • Clean and Disinfect: Regularly clean and disinfect commonly-touched surfaces and objects.
  • Promote Respiratory Hygiene: Teach children and adults to cover their mouth and nose with a tissue or elbow when coughing or sneezing.


  • Symptomatic Treatment: There is no specific antiviral treatment for HFMD, so management is generally focused on relieving symptoms. Over-the-counter pain relievers can help reduce fever and alleviate pain.
  • Fluids and Nutrition: Encourage the child to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, especially if mouth sores make it difficult to swallow. Offer soft, cool, and easy-to-eat foods.
  • Isolation: Infected individuals should be isolated to prevent the spread of the virus. Keep children with HFMD out of school or daycare until they are no longer contagious.
  • Medical Attention: Parents should seek medical attention if the child experiences difficulty breathing, a persistent high fever, or if there are signs of dehydration.

Approaching Preschools:

  • Education: Work with preschools to educate staff on the signs and symptoms of HFMD, as well as preventive measures.
  • Hygiene Practices: Emphasize the importance of good hygiene practices, including handwashing and sanitizing, among both children and staff.
  • Communication: Ensure open communication channels between the preschool and parents to promptly address any cases and implement necessary precautions.

In the effort to manage and reduce the impact of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Bali, Nusa Medica Clinic is ready to assist you. Our experienced medical professionals are dedicated to providing the best care for your children. If you suspect your child may have symptoms of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease or if you have any health concerns, don’t hesitate to reach out to Nusa Medica Clinic. Our team is well-equipped to diagnose and manage paediatric illnesses, ensuring the health and well-being of your loved ones.

Contact Nusa Medica Clinic Bali today for expert medical advice, timely intervention, and compassionate care. Let’s work together to keep our community healthy and safe.

Visit our website or call +62 81808-811911 to schedule an appointment or to speak with our medical professionals.

Remember, early detection and appropriate medical care are crucial in managing Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. Nusa Medica Clinic is here for you, providing the best solution for your family’s health.

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